雅思阅读:定语从句

发布时间:2013-12-13 16:08:42 来源:宁波朗阁培训中心 编辑:宁波朗阁小编
  英语和汉语中的定语用法和位置有很大的不同。汉语中定语只能前置,而英语中定语既可前置也可后置。两者的不同,不仅仅表现在结构上,同...

  英语和汉语中的定语用法和位置有很大的不同。汉语中定语只能前置,而英语中定语既可前置也可后置。两者的不同,不仅仅表现在结构上,同时也还表现在含义上。英语中的定语从句有时从原因、结果、目的或条件等方面对中心词加以限定。因此,在对语法结构、上下文逻辑关系深刻理解的前提下,为了更明确地表明这种逻辑关系,可以将定语从句翻译成相应的状语从句。同时值得注意的是,定语从句与中心词之间常有分割成分,而该分割成分中与定语从句紧挨着的名词,常常会被误认为定语从句的中心词。

    \

  因此,遇到这种结构,一定要根据上下文和常识进行判断。翻译定语从句时可采用提前译、顺序译、分译或转译等多种方法。

  1. As far as the third factor is concerned,the history of science shows many instances in which the force of authority has operated in such a manner as to build up an exceedingly powerful resistance to further investigation;in some cases centuries elapsed before this resistance was eventually broken down,as happened in cosmology,for example.

  第一层: As far as the third factor is concerned ,状语从句1 the history 主 of science 定 shows 谓 many 定 instances 宾 in which the force of authority has operated in such a manner as to build up an exceedingly power- 定语从句 ful resistance to further investigation ; in some cases 状 centuries 主 elapsed 谓 before this resistance was eventually broken down,as 状语从句2 happened in cosmology,for example.

  第二层: (状语从句1) As far as 引 the third factor 主语 is 系 concerned 表语

  (定语从句) in which 引 the force 主 of authority 定 has operated 谓 in such a manner as to build up an exceedingly powerful re- 状 sistance to further investigation

  (状语从句2) before 引 this resistance 主 was 系 eventually 状 broken down, 表 as happened in cosmology,for example 定语从句

  第三层: (定语从句) as 引 happened 谓 in cosmology,状 for example. 插入语

  要点 本句由两个分句构成,以分号连接。第一个分句的主干为the history of science shows many instances,in which引导的定语从句修饰instances,such ……as ……表结果,后接不定式;在第二个分句中,before 引出时间状语从句:before this resistance was eventually broken down;代词as在此是关系代词,引出定语从句:as happened in cosmology。resistance:抵抗(力);阻力。cosmology:宇宙论,宇宙哲学。

  译文 至于第三个因素,科学史中有许多事例表明,权威的力量起到这样一种作用:它给进一步的研究设置了一道极其牢固的障碍;在许多情况下,要花上几个世纪的时间才能最终打破这道障碍。例如,在宇宙学中就发生过这样的事。

2. Behaviorists suggest that the child who is raised in an environment where there are many stimuli which develop his or her capacity for appropriate responses will experience greater intellectual development.

  第一层: Behaviorists 主 suggest 谓 that the child who is raised in an environment where there are many stimuli which develop his 宾语从句 or her capacity for appropriate responses will experience greater intellectual development.

  第二层: (宾语从句) that 引 the child 主 who is raised in an environment where there are many stimuli which develop his or her capacity 定语从句

  for appropriate responses will experience 谓 greater intellectual 定 development. 宾

  第三层: (定语从句) who 引 is raised 谓 in an environment 状 where there are many stimuli which develop his or her capacity for ap- 定语从句

  propriate responses

  第四层: (定语从句) where 引 there 引 are 系 many 定 stimuli 主 which develop his or her capacity for appropriate responses 定语从句

  第五层: (定语从句) which 引 develop 谓 his or her 定 capacity 宾 for appropriate 定 responses

  要点 根据上下文的逻辑关系可以看出,本句中suggest的词义不是propose,而是bring an idea into the mind,所以翻译为…的看法是。who引导的定语从句修饰child,根据上下文的语义关系,翻译成条件句;where引导的定语从句修饰 environment,用合译法译出;which引导的从句修饰stimuli,用分译法进行翻译。appropriate:适合的,相称的。

  译文 行为主义者的看法是,如果一个儿童在有许多刺激因素的环境里长大,而这些刺激因素能够开发其相应的反映能力,那么这个儿童将会有更好的智力发展。

  3. I suggest transforming our social system from a bureaucratically managed industrialism in which maximal production and consumption are ends in themselves into a humanist industrialism in which man and full development of his potentialities - those of love and of reason - are the aims of all social arrangements.

  要点 本句为含有两个定语从句的主从复合句。主句的谓语动词suggest可接动名词作宾语。而宾语中的transform一词常用在transform sth. from …… into……结构中,译为“把…从…转变为…”。句中两个in which分别修饰其先行词industrialism,翻译时宜采用前置法。两个破折号之间的those of love and of reason为potentialities一词的同位语。

  译文 我建议把我们的社会制度从以最大限度的生产和最大限度的消费为目的的官僚主义管理下的产业体制转变为一个充分发挥人的潜能——即爱和理智的潜能——为其全部社会工作之目的的人道主义产业体制。

4. President Kennedy wanted people who raised questions,who criticized,on whose judgment he could rely, who presented an intelligent point of view,regardless of their rank or viewpoint.

  要点 本句中who……,who……,on whose……,who……四个定语从句并列,共同修饰中心词people。

  译文 肯尼迪总统需要提问题的人、能提批评意见的人、做出可靠判断的人以及能提出明智看法的人,而不问他们的级别和观点。

  5. In the soap war between Proctor and Gamble and Unilever, tremendous use is made of statistics to measure the dynamic difference in market resulting from the proportional allocation to advertising, which constitutes such a large part of their production costs before selling, so that they regard their production costs as production plus advertising costs.

  要点 此句结构比较复杂,但主句很简单,主语为use,谓语为is made.主句正常语序为tremendous use of statistics is made to……, to measure……作目的状语,resulting from……为现在分词短语作difference的后置定语。which引导一个非限制性定语从句,修饰allocation to advertising.so that引导一个结果状语从句。plus为介词,意为“加上”。soap war 为“肥皂广告大战”。

  译文 在Proctor and Gamble和 Unilever两家企业之间的“肥皂大战”中,双方就大量使用了统计学知识来测量由相应的广告投入所引起的市场上的动态差异,这一项在前的生产成本中占较大部分,所以他们把生产成本看作是生产费用与广告费用之和。

  6. Smart cards,which can carry as much as 80 times more information on them than conventional cards with a magnetic stripe,are already widely used in European countries where centralized banks can roll out new services on a nationwide basis.

  要点 本句为简单复合句。句架为Smart cards, which ……, are already widely used in European countries where……。which为关系代词,引导非限制性定语从句,修饰smart cards;where 为关系副词,引导定语从句,修饰countries.nationwide:全国范围内的。roll out:本意为“展开(卷起之物)”,此处为引申义,指展开工作。

  译文 智能卡载有的信息量是普通磁卡信息载量的80多倍,已经在欧洲各国广泛使用,因而使欧洲各国中央银行得以在全国范围展开新型的服务。

  7. How well the prediction will be validated by later performance depends upon the amount,reliability,and appropriateness of the information used and on the skill and wisdom with which it is interpreted.

  要点 本句含有一个主语从句How well the prediction will be validated by later performance和一个定语从句with which it is interpreted.定语从句中it 指代prediction,该定语从句修饰the skill and wisdom.在翻译时主语从句用分译法,定语从句用合译法。validate:使有效;使有充分根据。

  译文 预测在多大程度上为后来的表现所证实,这取决于所采用信息的数量、可靠性和适宜性,还取决于用来解释预测的技巧和智慧。

8. Thus,to rectify the positions taken previously,where we contented ourselves with condemnations,in my delegation's opinion,we must find an overall solution which would come to grips with both the substance as well as the superficial aspects which,after all,serve only to compel us to keep this problem constantly on the Security Council's agendas.

  要点 本句含有三个定语从句where……condemnations,which would come to grips ……和which,after all, serve only to compel……。第二个定语从句译成同位结构;第三个定语从句同上下文有明显的因果关系,译成“因为…”。overall:从头到尾;总的,全面的。

  译文 因此,我们代表团认为,要纠正我们过去采取的只是满足于进行谴责的那种立场,我们必须寻求一个全面的解决方法,既能解决本质方面的问题,又能解决应对表面的问题,因为仅解决表面问题毕竟只能迫使我们一次又一次地把这个问题列入安理会的议程。

  9. We may define chemistry as the science in which we deal with the chemical change in matter as a result of which it is possible to form a new substance.

  要点 本句中有两个由which引导的定语从句:第一个定语从句的先行词是science,而不是chemistry;第二个定语从句的先行词是chemical change,而不是result或matter.

  译文 我们可以说,化学是论述物质化学变化的科学,通过化学变化可能获得新的物质。

  10. Time goes fast for one who has a sense of beauty,when there are pretty children in a pool and a young Diana on the edge,to receive with wonder anything you can catch!

  要点 本句由一个主句(Time goes fast)、两个定语从句(who……和you can catch)和一个状语从句(when……)组成。you can catch前省略了that.按照先发生的事情先叙述以及条件在先结果在后的汉语习惯,翻译时应采用逆序法。

  译文 对一个有美感,能以好奇心接收你所能抓到的任何东西的人来说,时间总是过得很快,比如当戏水池里有几个可爱的孩子,池边还有一位如黛安娜似的年轻女子时。

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