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雅思阅读模拟题和答案:The Triumph of Unreason

发布时间:2013-09-03 16:03:47 来源:宁波朗阁培训中心 编辑:宁波朗阁小编
  雅思阅读考试让很多烤鸭感到头疼,很多人也自以为掌握了好的方法。比如很多同学找到雅思阅读中的定位词之后,就把题目和原文分别翻译一...

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  雅思阅读考试让很多烤鸭感到头疼,很多人也自以为掌握了好的方法。比如很多同学找到雅思阅读中的定位词之后,就把题目和原文分别翻译一下,然后再进行判断。但是这种做法比较笨拙,因为考生非常有可能因为细枝末节的题目而错判断题目。其实每道题目都只有一个地方可能有错,因此,这个地方我们称之为“题眼”,或者叫做“考点词”。

  考点词基本上都位于句子的重心位置,多为谓语部分。常见考点词的类型有:反义考点词(有反义词的词,多为形容词和副词),数字数量考点词,绝对考点词,比较考点词等。

  下面宁波朗阁为大家整理了雅思阅读模拟试题和答案:The Triumph of Unreason,大家可以参考下!

  A.

  Neoclassical economics is built on the assumption that humans are rational beings who have a clear idea of their best interests and strive to extract maximum benefit (or “utility”, in economist-speak) from any situation. Neoclassical economics assumes that the process of decision-making is rational. But that contradicts growing evidence that decision-making draws on the emotions—even when reason is clearly involved.

  B.

  The role of emotions in decisions makes perfect sense. For situations met frequently in the past, such as obtaining food and mates, and confronting or fleeing from threats, the neural mechanisms required to weigh up the pros and cons will have been honed by evolution to produce an optimal outcome. Since emotion is the mechanism by which animals are prodded towards such outcomes, evolutionary and economic theory predict the same practical consequences for utility in these cases. But does this still apply when the ancestral machinery has to respond to the stimuli of urban modernity?

  C.

  One of the people who thinks that it does not is George Loewenstein, an economist at Carnegie Mellon University, in Pittsburgh. In particular, he suspects that modern shopping has subverted the decision-making machinery in a way that encourages people to run up debt. To prove the point he has teamed up with two psychologists, Brian Knutson of Stanford University and Drazen Prelec of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, to look at what happens in the brain when it is deciding what to buy.

  D.

  In a study, the three researchers asked 26 volunteers to decide whether to buy a series of products such as a box of chocolates or a DVD of the television show that were flashed on a computer screen one after another. In each round of the task, the researchers first presented the product and then its price, with each step lasting four seconds. In the final stage, which also lasted four seconds, they asked the volunteers to make up their minds. While the volunteers were taking part in the experiment, the researchers scanned their brains using a technique called functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)。 This measures blood flow and oxygen consumption in the brain, as an indication of its activity.

  E.

  The researchers found that different parts of the brain were involved at different stages of the test. The nucleus accumbens was the most active part when a product was being displayed. Moreover, the level of its activity correlated with the reported desirability of the product in question.

  F.

  When the price appeared, however, fMRI reported more activity in other parts of the brain. Excessively high prices increased activity in the insular cortex, a brain region linked to expectations of pain, monetary loss and the viewing of upsetting pictures. The researchers also found greater activity in this region of the brain when the subject decided not to purchase an item.

  G.

  Price information activated the medial prefrontal cortex, too. This part of the brain is involved in rational calculation. In the experiment its activity seemed to correlate with a volunteer’s reaction to both product and price, rather than to price alone. Thus, the sense of a good bargain evoked higher activity levels in the medial prefrontal cortex, and this often preceded a decision to buy.

  H.

  People’s shopping behaviour therefore seems to have piggy-backed on old neural circuits evolved for anticipation of reward and the avoidance of hazards. What Dr Loewenstein found interesting was the separation of the assessment of the product (which seems to be associated with the nucleus accumbens) from the assessment of its price (associated with the insular cortex), even though the two are then synthesised in the prefrontal cortex. His hypothesis is that rather than weighing the present good against future alternatives, as orthodox economics suggests happens, people actually balance the immediate pleasure of the prospective possession of a product with the immediate pain of paying for it.

  I.

  That makes perfect sense as an evolved mechanism for trading. If one useful object is being traded for another (hard cash in modern time), the future utility of what is being given up is embedded in the object being traded. Emotion is as capable of assigning such a value as reason. Buying on credit, though, may be different. The abstract nature of credit cards, coupled with the deferment of payment that they promise, may modulate the “con” side of the calculation in favour of the “pro”。

  J.

  Whether it actually does so will be the subject of further experiments that the three researchers are now designing. These will test whether people with distinctly different spending behaviour, such as miserliness and extravagance, experience different amounts of pain in response to prices. They will also assess whether, in the same individuals, buying with credit cards eases the pain compared with paying by cash. If they find that it does, then credit cards may have to join the list of things such as fatty and sugary foods, and recreational drugs, that subvert human instincts in ways that seem pleasurable at the time but can have a long and malign aftertaste.

  Questions 1-6

  Do the following statemets reflect the claims of the writer in Reading Passage 1?

  Write your answer in Boxes 1-6 on your answer sheet.

  TRUE if the statement reflets the claims of the writer

  FALSE if the statement contradicts the claims of the writer

  NOT GIVEN if it is possbile to say what the writer thinks about this

  1. The belief of neoclassical economics does not accord with the increasing evidence that humans make use of the emotions to make decisions.

  2. Animals are urged by emotion to strive for an optimal outcomes or extract maximum utility from any situation.

  3. George Loewenstein thinks that modern ways of shopping tend to allow people to accumulate their debts.

  4. The more active the nucleus accumens was, the stronger the desire of people for the product in question became.

  5. The prefrontal cortex of the human brain is linked to monetary loss and the viewing of upsetting pictures.

  6. When the activity in nucleus accumbens was increased by the sense of a good bargain, people tended to purchase coffee.

  Questions 7-9

  Choose the appropriate letters A-D and write them in boxes 7-9 on your answe sheet.

  7. Which of the following statements about orthodox economics is true?

  A. The process which people make their decisions is rational.

  B. People have a clear idea of their best interests in any situation.

  C. Humans make judgement on the basis of reason rather then emotion.

  D. People weigh the present good against future alternatives in shopping.

  8. The word “miserliness” in line 3 of Paragraph J means__________.

  A. people’s behavior of buying luxurious goods

  B. people’s behavior of buying very special items

  C. people’s behavior of being very mean in shopping

  D. people’s behavior of being very generous in shopping

  9. The three researchers are now designing the future experiments, which test

  A. whether people with very different spending behaviour experience different amounts of pain in response to products.

  B. whether buying an item with credit cards eases the pain of the same individuals compared with paying for it by cash.

  C. whether the abstract nature of credit cards may modulate the “con” side of the calculation in favour of the “pro”。

  D. whether the credit cards may subvert human instincts in ways that seem pleasurable but with a terrible effect.

  Questions 10-13

  Complete the notes below.

  Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from Reading Passage 1 for each answer.

  Write your answers in boxes 10-13 on your answer sheet.

  To find what happens in the brain of humans when it is deciding things to buy, George Loewenstein and his co-researchers did an experiment by using the technique of fMRI. They found that different parts of the brain were invloved in the process. The activity in …10… was greatly increased with the displaying of certain product. The great activity was found in the insular cortex when …11…and the subject decided not to buy a product. The activity of the medial prefrontal cortex seemed to associate with both …12…informaiton. What interested Dr Loewenstein was the …13… of the assessment of the product and its price in different parts of the brain.

  雅思阅读是非题的解题步骤:

  STEP 1:定位,找出题目在原文中的出处。

  (1)找出题目中的关键词, 最好先定位到原文中的一个段落。

  将题目中的关键词与原文各段落的小标题或每段话的第一句相对照。有些题目能先定位到原文中的一个段落,这必将大大加快解题时间,并提高准确率。但并不是每个题目都能先定位到原文中的一个段落的。

  (2)从头到尾快速阅读该段落,根据题目中的其它关键词,在原文中找出与题目相关的一句或几句话。

  确定一个段落后,答案在该段落中的具体位置是未知的。所以,需要从头到尾快速阅读该段落,找出该段落中与题目相关的一句话或几句话,通常是一句话。

  (3)仔细阅读这一句话或几句话,根据第二大步中的原则和规律,确定正确答案。

  (4)要注意顺序性,即题目的顺序和原文的顺序基本一致。

  题目是有顺序的。第一题的答案应在文章的前部,第二题的答案应在第一题的答案之后。这个规律也有助于大家确定答案的位置。

  STEP 2:判断,根据下列原则和规律,确定正确答案。

  大家可对号入座入座,加快解题的速度和准确率。但大家不要僵化理解。

  1. True

  第一种情况:题目是原文的同义表达。

  通常用同义词或同义结构。

  例 1

  原文:Few are more than five years old.

  译文:很少有超过五年的。

  题目:Most are less than five years old.

  译文:大多数都小于五年。

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