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托福阅读背景知识:人造卫星

发布时间:2013-05-02 16:45:34 来源:宁波朗阁培训中心 编辑:宁波朗阁小编
  为方便我们广大考生备考迎考,宁波新托福为大家搜集整理了托福阅读背景知识:人造卫星,供大家参考使用,希望会对大家有所帮助。  卫...
  为方便我们广大考生备考迎考,宁波新托福为大家搜集整理了托福阅读背景知识:人造卫星,供大家参考使用,希望会对大家有所帮助。
  卫星是指在宇宙中所有围绕行星轨道上运行的天体,环绕哪一颗行星运转,就把它叫做那一颗行星的卫星。人造卫星(Manmade Satellite):环绕地球在空间轨道上运行(至少一圈)的无人航天器。人造卫星是发射数量最多、用途最广、发展最快的航天器。
  The satellite launch is currently the largest number, the most widely used, the fastest spacecraft. Satellite in orbit were divided into low orbit satellite, high orbit satellite, all kinds of artificial satellites geostationary satellite, satellite, sun synchronous satellite, large elliptical orbit satellites and polar orbiting satellite; according to the usage, the satellite can be divided into communications satellites, meteorological satellites, reconnaissance satellites, satellite navigation, measurement satellite, satellite interceptor etc.. These kinds of satellites, use different and made great contribution to human.
  1957年10月4日。苏联宣布成功地把世界上第一颗绕地球运行的人造卫星送入轨道。美国官员宣称,他们不仅因苏联首先成功地发射卫星感到震惊,而且对这颗卫星的体积之大感到惊讶。这颗卫星重83公斤,比美国准备在第二年初发射的卫星重8倍,可是,美国没有苏联那么大的R7火箭,所以,发射不了。
  For low orbit satellite, orbit satellite, orbit, the earth synchronous orbit satellite, satellite orbit, the sun synchronous orbit satellite, large elliptical orbit satellites and polar orbiting satellite; divided into experimental satellite science satellite, satellite and application technology by use of.
  Orbit satellite (except near the track) usually has three kinds: the earth synchronous orbit, sun synchronous orbit, polar orbit.
  The earth synchronous orbit is running cycle and the rotation of the earth in the same period prograde orbit. But there is a very special track, called geostationary earth orbit. The orbit inclination is zero, in the earth's equator 35786 kilometers. The people on the ground, running on the track of the satellite is stationary. General communication satellite, broadcast satellite, meteorological satellite of the track more favorable. The earth synchronous orbit has a lot of, but only a geostationary orbit.
  第一颗人造地球卫星呈球形,直径58厘米,重83.6公斤。它沿着椭圆轨道飞行,每96分钟环绕地球一圈。人造地球卫星内带着一台无线电发报机,不停地向地球发出“滴——滴——滴”的信号。一些人围着收音机。侧耳倾听着初次来自太空的声音。另一些人则仰望天空,试图用肉眼在夜晚搜索人造地球卫星明亮的轨迹。
  The sun synchronous orbit around the earth's axis of rotation and revolution of the earth, the same direction, angle of rotation speed is equal to the average angular velocity of Earth (360 degrees / year) track, it from Earth's height of not more than 6000 kilometers. Running on the track of the satellite in the same direction through the same latitude and local time is the same. Meteorological satellite, the earth resources satellite generally use this track.
  中国于1970年4月24日成功地发射了第一颗人造卫星“东方红”1号。该星直径约1米,重173公斤,沿近地点439公里、远地点2384公里的椭圆轨道绕地球运行,轨道倾角68,5”,运行周期114分钟。发射“东方红”1号卫星的远载火箭为“长征”1号三级运载火箭,火箭全长29.45米,直径2.25米,起飞重量81.6吨,发射推力112吨。
扩展阅读:托福阅读题型解析     托福阅读背景知识:冰岛
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