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如何提升雅思写作句式变化

发布时间:2014-04-15 10:56:43 来源:宁波朗阁培训中心 编辑:宁波朗阁小编
朗阁雅思培训名师和大家分享如何提升雅思写作句式变化。  一、同义转换  写作中,句式多变的方法和其本身的语言魅力是至关重要的。当然...

朗阁雅思培训名师和大家分享如何提升雅思写作句式变化。

 

 

  一、同义转换

 

 

  写作中,句式多变的方法和其本身的语言魅力是至关重要的。当然,这只是第一点,更重要的是我们不断强调的:雅思考试无处不在的“同义转换”。不管是阅读还是听力,同义转换现象更是无处不在了,大家在熟悉了雅思的同义转换现象后,在阅读理解中能够很快定位(locate)到答案所在原文的近似位置,从而很快地找到并填对答案。在任何一篇英文文章中,都能够体会到精彩的“同义转换考试技巧”的魔力!

 

 

  让我们回到雅思写作中来。实际上,我们稍微想一想就可以明白写作和阅读理解是一回事。有写出来的文章,才谈得上之后读者或者是考生的阅读,也就才涉及到阅读理解的能力等等的说法。雅思A类写作即学术类(Academic)写作,要求写出来的文章是比较正式的文体。为了深刻体会写作中的同义转换的重要性和必要性,我们来看下面这篇议论文片段,体会一下无处不在的同义转换。

 

 

  ...The purpose of our study is to consider several methodological issues relevant for study of the monetary transmission process. These issues involve relative emphasis on monetary shocks as opposed to systematic policy adjustments; vector autoregression vs. Structural modelling research strategies...

 

 

  这里as opposed to等同于vs.(versus的缩写形式),为了避免重复,作者用了同义表达的技巧。

 

 

  大家再看一个典型的雅思作文的片段:

 

 

  The appearance of cars has caused many social problems. What is your opinion?

 

 

  ...I believe cars have indeed caused many problems in society and we need to reduce the use of cars.

 

 

  First of all, we must consider the severe traffic caused by cars...

 

 

  Another consideration is that cars generate serious pollution...

 

 

  Admittedly, cars facilitate our travel and make people’s daily commute much easier than before. However, the adverse effects of cars significantly outweigh the benefits they bring.

 

 

  这里表现的实际是一种非常常见的同义转换现象,就是不同词性的转换使用来表达相同的意思。动词consider与another consideration的交换使用显得作者写作技巧成熟,也使得文章不单调重复,也只有这样的文章才能符合考官的口味,才能赢得高分!

 

 

  在学术类写作中,朗阁海外考试研究中心的专家们认为同义词转换表达之常见从以下几段小文章可见一斑。以下都是经典的雅思作文范文的节选,请仔细体会模仿。

 

 

  【范文1】

 

 

  Any government, whether rich or poor, cannot put every penny into education, even though it may be trying to improve overall conditions for education and to create much needed rewards for teachers. Private schools, on the other hand, help to narrow government spending on education by charging wealthy students expensive tuition fees in return for superior learning facilities and highly sought after staff. That is why governments throughout the world, whether developed or developing, encourage individuals and enterprises to establish private schools. The Chinese government has even put forward an incentive to support any interested parties, both in China and from overseas, to help promote and expand existing private education across the country.

 

 

  【解析】

 

 

  rich和wealthy近义

 

 

  【范文2】

 

 

  Firstly, modern people suffer from greater tension so that they have less time to communicate with each other. More and more people are living in urban areas, where life has a quick rhythm. Due to fierce competition, city dwellers have to be hard-working in order to keep up with the pace of city life. Everybody is busy all the time and the other increasing pressures at work deprive us of a casual way of life. Moreover, living in apartments in isolated blocks, we are becoming more and more removed from each other. And more often than not, it is no longer convenient for us to meet one anther freely.

 

 

  【解析】

 

 

  tensions表达了和pressures完全相同的意思,但是这样写不会显得单调重复;划线部分也是一种巧妙的同义改写形式:have less time to communicate with each other意思就是becoming more and more removed from each other,但是用了同义转换立即给文章增添了色彩!

 

 

  【范文3】

 

 

  Activities in environments that pose great danger to humans, such as locating sunken ships, cleanup of nuclear waste, prospecting for underwater mineral deposits, and active volcano exploration, are ideally suited to robots. Similarly, robots can explore distant planets. NASA’s Galileo, an unpiloted space probe, travelled to Jupiter in 1996 and performed tasks such as determining the chemical content of the atmosphere there.

 

 

  【解析】

 

 

  名词exploration与动词explore交错使用,达到简洁却又非常有效的同义转换效果!

 

 

  总之,在雅思写作中,一定要学会并能灵活运用这种百试不爽的“同义转换”技巧。想一想,在现实生活中,你愿意和一个说话总是重复一种老套模式的人交谈吗?从这个角度想,你就能明白为什么你利用“同义转换”雅思考官会给你一个好分数了。

 

 

  二、行云流水

 

 

  古人讲究“行云流水击节而歌,杏花巷里沽酒饯行”。只有行文如流水,写出的文章才能彰显流畅。而英文写作要求的不是那种委婉,要求思路清晰,文章脉络一目了然,讲究的是很强的逻辑性。这些特点在学术性雅思作文中显得尤为突出。这就要求我们能遵循简洁而不是简单(concise but not simple)并有逻辑的布局谋篇。

 

 

  那么如何做到雅思作文的“行云流水”呢?下面我们用一段非常常见的雅思议论文片段来说明:

 

 

  Avoiding pollution can be a full-time job. Try not to inhale traffic fumes; keep away from chemical plants and building-sites; wear a mask when cycling. It is enough to make you want to stay at home. But that, according to a growing body of scientific evidence, would also be a bad idea. Research shows that levels of pollutants such as hazardous gases, particulate matter and other chemical “nasties” are usually higher indoors than out, even in the most polluted cities. Since the average American spends 18 hours indoors for every hour outside, it looks as though many environmentalists may be attacking the wrong target.

 

 

  这段话第一句陈述一个论断,紧接着用三个并列的动作(动词短语来实现)加以阐释。接着用指代词“it”衔接前文提到的内容,而后用转折连词“but”做一个小转折,最后用一个“since”呈现出一个因果关系(Since the average American spends 18 hours indoors for every hour outside, it looks as though many environmentalists may be attacking the wrong target.)。整段文章非常紧凑,搭配合理,衔接自然紧密,逻辑清晰,用词多变,是具有代表性的优秀段落。这就是我们要达到的理想雅思作文。

 

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